News Archive

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News 2017

 

 

News 2016

 

The International Neuroethics Society is committed to working with its members and partners to align considerations of ethics, society, policy and law with advances in neuroscience. As an international organization, we seek a diversity of global perspectives, values and experiences, and encourage multi-cultural and intellectual exchange. Our successful 10th anniversary Annual Meeting (November 2016) coincided with a time of political change and uncertainty. We remain optimistic for the future, and focused on expanding our international work in an inclusive way.

Martha Farah speaking at SfN16

Martha Farah talks about the ethical limits of Limitless in full house Neuroethics Social at SfN on Tuesday Nov 15, 2016. Julie Robillard presented Endless Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Judy Illes screened a trailer from the new television show Pure Genius. Salient themes throughout the dynamic evening were accuracy in entertainment versus scientific reporting, hype and hope, reality versus fantasy, and consumerism and privilege.

The National Academy of Medicine awarded the 2016 Rhoda and Bernard Sarnat International Prize in Mental Health to two recipients: Steven Hyman, director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, and Robin Murray, a professor at King's College. Hyman was awarded the prize for his leadership in furthering understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders as biological diseases. Murray was awarded the prize for integrating the biological, environmental, and social aspects of schizophrenia and thereby improving the lives of patients and their families.

The Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics has released the inaugural special issue of Clinical Neuroethics, to which many INS members have contributed. The annual publication will address key issues and questions that are directly relevant to the translation of the brain sciences in clinical medicine and their related application in law and public life.

Monique Wonderly, Princeton University, and Kaitlyn McGlothlen, University of Washington, have been selected as winners of the 2016 INS Student/Postdoc Essay Contest. Both authors will be recognized at the 2016 INS Annual Meeting and their essays will be published in a future issue of Kopf Carrier. In addition to the INS essay contest, McGlothlen won the Voices in Bioethics 2016 Summer Essay Contest.

Hank Greely, Stanford University and INS President-Elect, was featured in a radio show on "What science says about Michigan lab’s plan to bring frozen bodies back to life" published by Michigan Radio on December 9.

INS President Judy Illes wrote an article titled "Head Transplant an Unjustified Ghoulish Human Experiment" in the Vancouver Sun with Emanuel Cabral and Tanya Feng, published December 3. Illes was also the feature subject of an article titled "On the Origin of Scientists: Neuroethicist Judy Illes" in the Ubyssey, published December 2. 

Henry Greely, Khara Ramos, and Christine Grady wrote an article titled "Neuroethics in the Age of Brain Projects" in Neuron, published November 2. The article examines ethical questions brought about by neuroscience advancements and emergence of the United States BRAIN Initiative and the European Union Human Brain Project, as well as its exploration by other efforts.

L Syd M Johnson, Michigan Technological University, wrote "Death by neurological criteria: expert definitions and lay misgivings" for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, published November 1.

James Giordano, Georgetown University Medical Center, together with John Shook, University at Buffalo, and Kira Becker, Amherst College, wrote a paper titled "On the 'Neuroscience of Ethics' - Approaching the Neuroethical Literature as a Rational Discourse on Putative Neural Processes of Moral Cognition and Behavior" in the Journal of Neurology and Neuromedicine (2016); 1(6) 32-36. The paper reviews developments in neuroscientific studies of morality, and presents a rational view of the capabilities, limitations and responsibilities that any genuine neuroethical address and discourse should regard.

Laura Y. Cabrera, Michigan State University, wrote an open peer commentary titled "Is External Pressure Really the Key Objection Against Neurosurgery for Imprisoned Psychopaths?" in AJOB Neuroscience, published October 3, and presented a lecture on "Transcranial direct current stimulation, cognitive enhancement and public (mis)understandingat the Lyman Briggs College Speaker series, October 4.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, wrote an article titled "The science, drugs and tech pushing our brains to new limits" for The Conversation, published October 3. The article featured work by Molly Crocket, Edda Bilek, Andreas Myer-Lindenberg and Jack Gallant.

Several INS members contributed to the recent issue of AJOB Neuroscience, published October 3.

Karen Rommelfanger, Emory University, contributed to a story "How brain-machine connections can help paraplegics move again" with The Current, published September 27.

James Giordano, Georgetown University, along with Amanda Martin, Kira Becker, and Martina Darragh, wrote third installment of the four-part comprehensive bibliography of neuroethics, titled "'Second Tradition Neuroethics' – Ethical Issues in Neuroscience" in Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, published September 19. Part 1 (overview and reviews – defining and describing the field and its practices) and Part 2 (neuroscientific studies of morality and ethics) of the series are available open access.

Moheb Costandi, INS Board Member, wrote an article, "Tomorrow's World Today: The 2016 International Neuroethics Society Meeting," for the Dana Foundation Blog, published September 7.

Philipp Kellmeyer, University of Freiburg, along with Thomas Cochrane, Joeseph Fins, Oliver Müller, Christine Mitchell, Tonio Ball and Nikola Biller-Andorno, wrote an article titled "The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems" in the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, published September 16.

The NIH BRAIN Initiative has included neuroethics in their research priority areas for projects in FY2017. This funding opportunity announcement will seek R01 applications proposing to address core ethical issues associated with research focused on the human brain and resulting from emerging technologies and advancements in research and development supported by the BRAIN Initiative. The goal is to support efforts that are both complimentary and integrative with the transformative, breakthrough discoveries being supported through the BRAIN Initiative.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, was interviewed by Sky News for an article titled "Call To Test Benefits Of Brain-Boosting Trend" published August 30.

To highlight worldwide efforts to fund neuroscience research and address the growing threat of brain disorders, Nature Neuroscience asked leaders of six global brain initiatives to write about their programs. Contributing authors to the article "Worldwide initiatives to advance brain research," published August 26, include: Sten Grillner (E.U. Human Brain Project), Nancy Ip and Mu-ming Poo (China Brain Project), Christof Koch (Allen Institute for Brain Science), Walter Koroshetz and Terrence J Sejnowski (U.S. BRAIN Initiative), Hideyuki Okano (Japan Brain/MINDS Program), and Miri Polachek (Israel Brain Technologies).

Barbara Sahakian, University of Oxford, was interviewed by Sky News for an article titled "Call To Test Benefits Of Brain-Boosting Trend" published August 30.

Philipp Kellmeyer, University of Freiburg Medical Center, recently joined the Advisory Board of the Neuroethics Network and also the Clinical Neuroethics Advisory Board, charged with setting the direction for a new annual issue of the Cambridge Quarterly of Healtcare Ethics focussing on neuroethical topics.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop in Washington, DC, on March 3-4, 2016, discussing opportunities for improving the integrity, efficiency, and validity of clinical trials for nervous system disorders. The purpose of this workshop was to generate discussion about not only what is feasible now, but what may be possible with the implementation of cutting-edge technologies in the future. The publication, "Neuroscience Trials of the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop," summarizes the presentations and discussion at this event.

Laura Cabrera, Michigan State University, and Peter Reiner, University of British Columbia, wrote the article "A Novel Sequential Mixed-method Technique for Contrastive Analysis of Unscripted Qualitative Data: Contrastive Quantitized Content Analysis" in the journal Sociological Methods & Research, published August 4. The abstract is available on the MSU Bioethics blog.

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues published a blog post by Rashmi Borah titled "Introducing New Primer Series: Spotting and Responding to Hype" on August 3. The first set of primers covers hype related to topics in new technology, public health, and neuroscience. Each introduces hype about scientific topics in the media, and provides users with ways to spot hype and evaluate scientific claims in media outlets.

Updates from the NIH BRAIN Initiative Multi-Council Working Group on August 2 were circulated through the NINDS Director's Messages and the Brain Update blog, detailing some contributions to the proceedings from Walter Koroshetz, Bruce Cuthbert, Alyssa Picchini Schaffer, Katrin Amunts, and Lisa M. Lee.

The new Neuroethics Response Action Task Force composed and sent a letter July 29 to the NIH in response to a request for information regarding "Guidance for Opportunities in Neuroethics (NIH BRAIN Initiative)."

The Dana Foundation published a brief preview of the 2016 International Neuroethics Meeting in San Diego on their blog July 28.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, wrote an article titled "Fair play? How ‘smart drugs’ are making workplaces more competitive" in The Conversation, published July 1.

Denis Larrivee, Loyola University Chicago, presented three posters titled "Neurotechnology and the Sense of Self: Ethical Reflections on the Impact of Modulating Neural Sources of Decisional Acts," "The Medium or the Message: Neuroethics and the Perceptual Influence of Information Utilization," and "Brain Computer Interfacing, Retrofitted Exoskeletons, and Body Schema: Retrieving the Self in a Malleable Body Image" at the Neuroethics Network conference in Paris, June 29 to July 1.

James Giordano and Rachel Wurzman wrote a paper titled "Integrative Computational and Neurocognitive Science and Technology for Intelligence Operations: Horizons of Potential Viability, Value and Opportunity" in the journal STEPS: Science, Technology, Engineering and Policy, published June 30. The paper presents a case for a NEURINT (neurocognitive intelligence) approach to intelligence operations that uses developing technology from computational and neuro-cognitive sciences to enable automated access, acquisition and analysis of multiple sources of information in defining and predicting potentially aggressive and violent actions. 

Fabrice Jotterand, Regis University and University of Basel, and Veljko Dubljevic, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal and McGill University, edited a edited a book titled, Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives, published by Oxford University Press June 2016.

Marcello Ienca, University of Basel and INS Student/Postdoc Representative, and Fabrice Jotterand, Regis University and University of Basel, along with Constantin Vică and Bernice Elger, wrote an article titled "Social and Assistive Robotics in Dementia Care: Ethical Recommendations for Research and Practice" in the International Journal of Social Robotics, published June 22.

The INS International Ambassador Program will be initiated at the at 2016 INS Annual Meeting and include a discussion of national level brain research efforts from around the world and breakout group discussions that will focus on the potential implications and opportunities engendered by these initiatives.

Laura Cabrera, Michigan State University, presented a talk titled "Rethinking the Role of the Environment for Brain and Mental Health" as part of the symposium on "New Crossroads for Bioethics, Environment, and the Brain Sciences: Environmental Neuroethics" on June 16 at the 13th World Congress of Bioethics in Edinburgh, Scotland. Moderated by Judy Illes, University of British Columbia, the symposium addressed the ethical implications of anthropogenic environmental change for brain and mental health from different professional perspectives and disciplines, and explored frameworks, challenges, and priorities for this crossroads in bioethics, environment, and brain sciences that we call environmental neuroethics.

In light of President Obama's noting that "the very spark that marks ... our thoughts, our imagination, ... our ability to set ourselves apart from nature and bend it to our will ... also give us the capacity for unmatched destruction", James Giordano of Georgetown University, and a senior science advisory fellow to the Joint Staff of the Pentagon, warns about the growing threat of engaging brain science and neurotechnology to leverage global political power. Their article, "The neuroweapons threat," was published May 31 in The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.

John Knights, LeaderShape Global, wrote a white paper titled "Ethical Leadership: How to Develop Ethical Leaders" for Routledge, published May 27. The paper defines ethical leadership and explains its principles and practicalities. It explains why ethical leadership is needed and how to develop ethical leaders utilizing the concepts of awareness and consciousness within the context of three levels of intelligence that each have their own neural connection system. 

Alexandre Erler, American College of Thessaloniki, wrote an article titled "Using Stimulants to Tackle Social Disadvantages: Interesting in Theory, Problematic in Practice" in the American Journal of Bioethics, published May 23.

L. Syd M Johnson, Michigan Technological University, wrote and article titled "Reversing brain death: An immodest proposal" in Impact Ethics, published May 24. The article considers the ethical implications of controversial research that aims to "cure" brain death.

Laura Y. Cabrera, Michigan State University, participated and presented in the 1st forum of neuroethics organized by the Clinical Bioethics and Neuroethics Group of Anahuac University (BINCA, Bioética Clínica y Neuroética Anáhuac) in Mexico City, May 20-21.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, will be awarded the CINP Ethics Award for 2016 by the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology at the 30th CINP World Congress, July 3-5, 2016, in Seoul, Korea.

The Neuroethics & Law Blog, managed by staff of the Program in Ethics and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, released the June Neuroethics Roundup containing articles from academic and popular media sources. 

In light of President Obama's noting that "the very spark that marks ... our thoughts, our imagination, ... our ability to set ourselves apart from nature and bend it to our will ... also give us the capacity for unmatched destruction", James Giordano of Georgetown University, and a senior science advisory fellow to the Joint Staff of the Pentagon, warns about the growing threat of engaging brain science and neurotechnology to leverage global political power. Their article, "The neuroweapons threat," was published in The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.

Michele Farisco, Uppsala University, and Kathinka Evers have edited a newly released book, Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication: New Insights and Responsibilities concerning Speechless But Communicative Subjects.

L. Syd M Johnson, Michigan Technological University, wrote and article titled "Reversing brain death: An immodest proposal" in Impact Ethics, published May 24. The article considers the ethical implications of controversial research that aims to "cure" brain death.

Alexandre Erler, American College of Thessaloniki, wrote an article titled "Using Stimulants to Tackle Social Disadvantages: Interesting in Theory, Problematic in Practice" in the American Journal of Bioethics, published May 23.

Laura Y. Cabrera, Michigan State University, participated and presented in the 1st forum of neuroethics organized by the Clinical Bioethics and Neuroethics Group of Anahuac University (BINCA, Bioética Clínica y Neuroética Anáhuac) in Mexico City, May 20-21.

Report cover

Judy Illes, along with Jordan Tesluk, was quoted in an news story titled "How Our Environmental Activity Affects the Brain and Mental Health is Under-Studied" from the Vancouver Costal Health Research Institute, published May 16.

Peter Reiner, along with Saskia Nagel and Viorica Hrincu, contributed a session titled "Algorithm anxiety - Do decision-making algorithms pose a threat to autonomy?" at the 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Ethics in Engineering, Science and Technology (Conference Program, page 14 & 46), May 14 in Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (U.S.) released a new report May 12, titled "Bioethics for Every Generation: Deliberation and Education in Health, Science, and Technology," which sets forth a series of recommendations for how to tackle the most pressing ethical questions that confront U.S. society, and ensure everyone is equipped to address ethical dilemmas that arise in everyday life.

Lindsey Grubbs, Emory University, has published an article titled, "Notes from the field: Critical Juncture at Emory," in The Neuroethics Blog, May 10.

The INS Board of Directors, along with INS President Judy Illes, generated a Strategic Plan for the International Neuroethics Society.

The INS International Ambassador Program will be initiated at the at 2016 INS Annual Meeting and include a discussion of national level brain research efforts from around the world and breakout group discussions that will focus on the potential implications and opportunities engendered by these initiatives. 

Walter J. Koroshetz, director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, will provide the morning address at the 2016 INS Annual Meeting on November 11 in San Diego, CA.

Steven E. Hyman, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research and former INS President, will give the opening plenary on Thursday afternoon at the 2016 INS Annual Meeting on November 10 in San Diego, CA. 

Hank Greely discusses topics from his new book, The End of Sex and the Future of Human Reproduction, in articles from Stanford University News ("Changes in human reproduction raise legal, ethical issues, Stanford scholar says," April 6); The Spectator ("The return of eugenics," April 2); and The Times of London ("Brave new world of designer babies will put an end to sex,"March 28).

James Giordano, Georgetown University, and colleagues Eitan Armon and Nikola B. Kohls have published a new paper, "On the viability of neurotechnology and mind-body methods in pediatric mental health: Perspectives on integrating new tools to complement old techniques" in the European Journal of Integrative Medicine, (2016), 8(2): 137-140.

Peter Reiner, UBC, along with Fay Niker and Gidon Felsen, wrote an open commentary titled "Pre-Authorization: A Novel Decision-Making Heuristic That May Promote Autonomy" in The American Journal of Bioethics, published online April 25.

Marcello Ienca, University of Basel, along with Pim Haselager, wrote an article entitled "Hacking the brain: brain–computer interfacing technology and the ethics of neurosecurity" in Ethics and Information Technology, published online April 16.

The Neuroethics & Law Blog, managed by staff of the Program in Ethics and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, released the April Neuroethics Roundup containing articles from academic and popular media sources.

L Syd M Johnson, Michigan Technological University, and Andrew Fenton wrote an article entitled "The ethics of non-human primate research" for Impact Ethics, published April 5.

L Syd M Johnson, Michigan Technological University, published a paper entitled "Inference and inductive risk in disorders of consciousness" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4.

Laura Y. Cabrera wrote an article entitled "Inductive Risks, Inferences, and the Role of Values in Disorders of Consciousness" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4. 

James Bernat, Dartmouth, wrote and article entitled "Prognostic Limitations of Syndromic Diagnosis in Disorders of Consciousness" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4.

Markus Christen, University of Zurich, and Julian Savulescu, University of Oxford—along with Nikola Biller-Andorno, Berit Bringedal, Kevin Grimes, and Henrik Walter—wrote an article entitled "Ethical Challenges of Simulation-Driven Big Neuroscience" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4. 

Michele Farisco, Uppsala University, along with Kathinka Evers and Arleen Salles, wrote an article entitled "Big Science, Brain Simulation, and Neuroethics" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4.

Frederic Gilbert and John Noel M. Viaña, University of Tasmania, wrote an article entitled "Big Explanations for Big Expectations: Deriving Lessons From the Human Genome and Blue Brain Projects" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4.

Karola Kreitmair, Stanford University, wrote an article entitled "The Confidence Criterion in Big Neuroscience Authorship" in AJOB Neuroscience, published online April 4.

Barbara Sahakian, Cambridge University, and Annette Bruhl wrote the article entitled "Drugs, games, and devices for enhancing cognition: implications for work and society" in the Annals of the New York Academy of Science, published online April 4.

Barbara Sahakian, Cambridge University, and the US/UK Serious Games Workshop was discussed in a Philadelphia Inquirer article entitled "Drexel profs play games with Brits to improve health" published March 24.

Susan B. Levin, Smith College, published an article, entitled "Upgrading Discussions of Cognitive Enhancement," in Neuroethics; Online First, pp. 1-15, March 18.

Ryan Purcell wrote an article entitled "When it comes to issues of identity and authenticity in DBS, let patients have a voicefor The Neuroethics Blog, published March 22. 

Jennifer Laura Lee, McGill University, wrote an article entitled "Naming the devil: The mental health double bindfor The Neuroethics Blog, published March 15.

James Giordano, Georgetown University Medical Center, was executive editor of a new Pentagon white paper entitled "A Bio-Psycho-Social Science Approach for Understanding the Emergence of and Mitigating Violence and Terrorism" and delivered a lecture, entitled "DBS, IDEs and HDEs: Re-thinking the Ps and Qs (and RWCs) in the right and good path from bench to bedside," at the National Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank on March 9.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, along with Martin Rees and Azeem Azhar, discussed with BBC Click on March 16 the risks and benefits of artificial intelligence: if we are not yet in the realm of robots, are we dangerously in their thrall?

Joseph Wszalek and Sara Heyn of the University of Wisconsin–Madison wrote an article entitled "Sitting Here in My Safe European Home: How Neuroscientific Research Can Help Shape EU Policy During the Syrian Refugee Crisis" for The Neuroethics Blog, published March 1.

A paper published by Nita Farahany in January 2016 was recently the topic of an article titled "The Brain Gets Its Day in Court" published in The Atlantic, March 1.

Laura Y. Cabrera, Ralph Matthews and Judy Illes—along with Jordan Tesluk and Michelle Chakraborti—wrote an article entitled "Brain matters: from environmental ethics to environmental neuroethics" in Environmental Health, published February 15.

Julie Robillard, Jordan Tesluk, and INS President Judy Illes published a opinion article titled "The Zika crisis—Ethics advisory meets travel advisory" in the Vancouver Sun on February 9, calling on wealthy nations to share medical technology and build partnerships between institutions promoting brain health and developing countries currently facing the Zika virus.

Luis Echarte, Javier Bernacer, and Denis Larrivee—along with J. V. Oron and Miguel Grijalba-Uche—wrote an article entitled "Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake" for Frontiers in Psychology 7(117):1-6, published February 9.

Karen Herrera- Ferrá and James Giordano published a paper February 6 entitled “Re-classifying recurrent violent behavior? Considerations, caveats and neuroethical concerns for psychiatry and social engagement,” in Acta Psychopathologica, 2(1): 32-39 (2016).

Judy Illes, along with Adrian Owen, Adrian Byram and the MCS Neuroimaging Workgroup, wrote an article titled "Operationalizing neuroimaging for disorders of consciousness in the face of uncertainty and contingency: A view for the Canadian landscape" in the Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, published February 4.

Walter Glannon, University of Calgary, wrote an article entitled "Communication in Severe Brain Injury" for Brainstorm, distributed February 1.

Judy Illes, along with Shelly Benjaminy and Cody Lo, wrote an article titled "Social Responsibility in Stem Cell Research - Is the News All Bad?" in Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, published online January 27.

John R. Shook and James Giordano published a paper entitled, “Neuroethics beyond normal. Performance enablement and self-transformative technologies,” in the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Neuroethics Now. 25: 121-140 (2016), released online January 20.

Paul Root Wolpe, Emory University, spoke on radical life extension for Intelligence Squared.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, was interviewed about depression on the South Korean Radio program, the Morning Wave In Busan, No. 255, February 29. 

Nicholas S. Fitz and Peter B. Reiner of the University of British Columbia recently published in Nature, "Perspective: Time to expand the mind," discussing how thoughtful use of ubiquitous technology can improve mental ability more than drugs and devices.

Professors Trevor Robbins and Barbara Sahakian of the University of Cambridge are being awarded the Robert Sommer Medal for research on schizophrenia, reports a Cambridge Neuroscience news article. Every two years, the Robert Sommer Research Society awards the Robert Sommer Medal to honor outstanding schizophrenia research.

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, gave a lecture on "Games for the Brain" for the Darwin College Lecture Series 2016. The lecture discussed how neuroscientists can work together with other experts in game development, IT, and computing to develop enjoyable games for enhancing cognition, such as memory.

Matthew L. Baum, Harvard Medical School, released the book, The Neuroethics of Biomarkers: What the Development of Bioprediction Means for Moral Responsibility, Justice, and the Nature of Mental Disorder, through Oxford University Press. Check out other books from our members!

Barbara Sahakian, University of Cambridge, was quoted in: "In their own words: students share their views on smart drugs," by Helen Whitehouse, The Guardian, 1 March 2016.

Denis Larrivee and Angeline Larrivee wrote an article entitled "Value Contingency and Substance Supervenience: Metaphysics of Processional Relations and Impersonalistic Neuroethical Norms" for the Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Metaphysics, Salamanca, Spain. 

News 2015

Laura Cabrera, Michigan State University, and Judy Illes, UBC and INS President—along with B. Lynn Beattie and Emily Dwosh—wrote an article titled "Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study" in Open Medicine, published December 16, 2015.

Paul Appelbaum, Columbia University, along with Nicholas Scurich, published a paper titled "The blunt-edged sword: genetic explanations of misbehavior neither mitigate nor aggravate punishment" in the Journal of Law and the Biosciences, published December 10, 2015.